Psychology of mobility 1

1 Introduction: The Psychology of Global Mobility . . . . . . . . . .1
Stuart C. Carr

Part IContext

2 Human Mobility in a Global Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Adrian Furnham

3 Mixed-Methods Approaches to Contextually Grounded Research in Settings of Armed Conflict and Natural Disaster . . . 47
Kenneth E. Miller

4 Ethical Psychological Practice with Geographically Mobile Individuals and Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Graham R. Davidson

Part II Motives

5 Mobility and Personality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Irene Hanson Frieze and Man Yu Li

6 Identity and Global Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Phyllis Tharenou

7 Global Mobility, Local Economy: It's Work Psychology, Stupid! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Stuart C. Carr

8 The Psychology of Enforced Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Wendy Ager and Alastair Ager

Part III Adjustment

9 Global Mobility and Cross-Cultural Training . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
Jan Selmer

10 Mobility and Acculturation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
John W. Berry


Chapter 1
Introduction: The Psychology of Global Mobility
Stuart C. Carr

Quando andate a casa, conoscete che cosa lasciate, ma non che cosa troverete

(When you leave your home, you know what you leave behind, but not what you will find)
Old Italian Proverb

Where today are the Pequot? Where are the Narragansett, the Mohican, the Pokanoket, and many other once powerful tribes of our people? They have vanished before the avarice and the oppression of the White Man, as snow before a summer sun.

Will we let ourselves be destroyed in our turn without a struggle, give up our homes, our country bequeathed to us by the Great Spirit, the graves of our dead and everything that is dear to us? I know you will cry with me Never! Never!
Shawnee chief, Tecumseh (1811).
Sleep Not Longer, O Choctaws and Chickasaws, from a speech before the Joint Council of the Choctaw and Chickasaw nations

Abstract
Globalization has magnified the salience of global mobility, for travelers and new settlers, host communities, policy-makers and social scientists alike. This book is a response to that challenge. Its contributions by leading thinkers crystallize a new and emerging field. Collectively the contributions argue that the Psychology of Global Mobility, like global mobility itself, is a pressing concern for Human Development. The book offers a useful response to the United Nations Human Development Report for 2009. This called for more multi-disciplinary approaches to understanding and enabling the human capabilities that both (i) drive and (ii) result from, global mobility. The books chapters analyze the historical, methodological and ethical context for mobility; its motivational substrates in personality, gender identity, economy, and climate change like disasters natural and man-made; mediating roles for cross-cultural adjustment via training, acculturation, inclusion and wellbeing; and mobility's consequences for individual careers, equal opportunity, global connectivity via technology, and human poverty reduction. Human development, the book shows, is a dynamic product stemming significantly from motivation, adjustment and performance, occurring mutually between the more and less globally mobile.


Keywords Migration-development nexusHuman developmentPsychologyGlobal mobilityBrain drainBrain gainPoverty reduction
Abbreviations

IOMInternational Association for Migration

n AchNeed for Achievement

HDRHuman Development Report

UNDPUnited Nations Development Programme

Global mobility is etched in human behavior since humanity began. Many thousands of years ago, according to archaeology and genetic science, hominids walked out of Africa's Great Rift Valley, in East Africa. Some of them a very small number perhaps helped to populate the Earth as we know it today. Around a millennium ago flotillas of waka hourua (voyaging canoes) crossed huge tracts of Pacific expanse. Groups of people in those waka came from Hawaiki, in Eastern Polynesia (Howe, 2003). Some of them reached the most recent country to be settled by human beings, Aotearoa/New Zealand. After these early first settlements, history records successive waves of global mobility by imperial powers, caused by, causing, and continuing to cause incalculable hardships, brutalities, suffering and injustices to first peoples (Marsella & Ring, 2003).